Paul Turner is the Rachel Carson Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Yale University.
He explains that there are numerous ways bacteria have taken genes and functions from viruses and incorporated them into the bacteria to enable a new opportunity for bacterial life to continue. Further, our human genomes are full of what are recognizably virus genes, or “ghosts of infections past,” and we’re still not clear how these genes may function.
He also covers the tremendous potential for phages to fight infection as antibiotics lose their effectiveness.
He talks about some of the roadblocks to this forward movement and how his lab is approaching this research as well as using viruses to better understand evolution as a process and examine pathogenic virus ecology.
Along the way he explains multiple current theories on viruses, virus RNA, and even touches on the exciting work in ocean genomics, a field that is able to look even closer at metagenomics. He also talks about the technology available, how now that scientists have more single-cell tools to study and examine viruses, he’s more optimistic that we can access the individual cell level to see variation in how certain cells interact with “free riders” like viruses.